Breast cancer happens when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control and then invade nearby tissues or spread throughout the body. Large collections of this out of control tissue are called tumors. However, some tumors are not really a cancer because they can’t spread or threaten someone’s life. These are called benign tumors. The tumors that can spread throughout the body or invade nearby tissues are considered cancer and are called malignant tumors. Theoretically, any of the types of tissue in the breast can form a cancer, but usually it comes from either the duets or the glands. Because it may take months to year for a tumor to get large enough to feel in the breast, we screen for tumors with mammograms, which can sometimes see disease before we can feel it.


Risk Factors for Breast cancer
  • Increased age
  • Early menarche(1st period) & late menopause
  • Nulliparous women(having no children)
  • Hormonal treatment
  • Family history of breast cancer
  • obesity
How can I prevent breast cancer?

  • Avoiding risk Factors
  • More than one pregnancies
  • Breast-feed all the children for several months
  • Exercise regularly
  • Maintain a slim body





Warning Signals for Breast cancer
  • Painless lump in the breast, which may be increasing in size
  • Blood stained nipple discharge
  • Breast thickening
  • A recent change in nipple like reaction
  • A recent change in the skin overlying breast
  • A lamp in armpit

Breast self Examination (BSE)

It is a simple technique to palpate to detect any recent change in the texture. Ideally it should be performed once a month 8-10 days from 1st day after your periods. If you are postmenopausal, this should be done every month on a fixed day.

Advantages to the baby

  • Healthy and easily digestible nutrition
  • Lower the rate of ear infection, diarrhea, and skin rashes
  • Protection against bronchitis and meningitis
  • Good jaw development
  • Early bonding
Advantages to the mother

  • Cost Effective, no bottles to sterilize
  • Natural contraception
  • Lowers the risk of developing cancer of breast & ovary
  • Early loss of pregnancy weight

There are 3 ways to investigate any breast lump. This is called Triple Assessment. This is done worldwide in the same manner.

Clinical Breast Examination done by your doctor to know size, shape, consistency of the lamp, overlaying skin, condition of the nipple and examination of the armpit.

Mammography To see the details of the lamp, to look for any other suspicious areas in the breast & axilla. This is also to see other breast( all breast should be checked 3 ways: by self-exam, by health care provider exam and try mammography).

FNCA This means fine Needle Aspiration Cytology. In this cells of the lamp are studied for cancerous change.

  • Safe in high risk patient for General Anesthesia
  • Reduces pre-op apprehension
  • Selective blockade of cardiac sympathetic fibers offers potential patient benefits like attenuation of surgical stress response, improved myocardial oxygen balance and greater intra-op hemodynamic
  • Superior postoperative pain relief
  • Can start oral intake within 2 hours if radical surgery
  • Fewer incidences of post-op nausea and vomiting
  • Significantly lower Anesthesia cost
  • Potential for reduction in risk of cancer recurrence

Conclusion cervical epidural is safe and reliable alternative technique of anesthesia for MRM surgery. It can provide not only effective anesthesia but also better postoperative pain relief, faster anesthetic recovery and greater patient satisfaction.