Head & Neck cancers are commonest cancer in male in northwestern India constitutes more than 1/3 of all cancers in male due to rampant use of tobacco in different form. Poor dental Hygiene, poor nutritional status, generalized ability, and acid reflux (GERD) are other risk factors for Head & Neck cancers.
Oral Cavity cancers are commonest (13.7 cases/1, 00,000 population) followed by cancers of Hypo pharynx (5.5 cases/1, 00,000) and larynx (5.5 cases/1, 00,000). In Gujarat, oral cavity cancers incidence is highest in the world. It is related to widespread tobacco habit. The proportion of tobacco related cancers among male varies from 33.4-50.6%. Among females relative proportion varies from 10.7-15.2%.
Smoking can cause cancers of on a cavity, esophagus, pancreas, larynx, lung, liver, kidney, cervix, bladder & bowel. Smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, Gutkha, kheni, panmasala etc) can cause cancers of oral cavity, esophagus, pancreas.
Every new born & neonates can be affected due to smoking done by parents. It leads to hepatoblastoma & leukemia in offspring alcohol along with smoking increases upper are digestive tract cancers.
HPV virus infection is established cause of oropharyngeal cancers . it is commonest cause of oropharynx (tonsils) cancers in western world countries.
It is EB virus is cause of nasopharyngeal cancers.